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域外 | 大数据时代的消费者保护

发布时间:2017/12/09 前沿资讯 浏览:1292

Consumer Protection In The Age Of Big Data

Max N. HelvestonAssociate Professor of Law, DePaul University College of Law.
Washington University Law Review,Aug2016

 

大数据时代的消费者保护

The Big Data revolution is upon us. Technological advances in the degree to which third parties can record information about individuals, along with increases in the use of predictive analytics, are transforming the way that business is conducted in practically all sectors of the economy. This is particularly true in the insurance industry, where a firm’s ability to forecast the future is the central determinant of its profitability.

Scholars and the media have touted the potential benefits of Big Data analytics—it will enable businesses to tailor their practices to suit consumers’ preferences and increase the efficiency of their operations.

The Big Data movement’s potential negative impacts, however, have garnered significantly less attention. Commentators have focused on privacy and data security concerns as the primary problems associated with Big Data analytics.

There have been essentially no attempts to assess how these developments affect consumers’ other interests or, more broadly, the extent to which they justify additional regulation of markets.

This Article fills this gap. It identifies eight societal interests that will be affected by insurers’ uses of data—actuarial fairness, loss prevention, autonomy, non-discrimination, justice, utility maximization, privacy, and good faith—and describes how regulators could act to ensure that markets.

While laissez-faire regulatory approaches are superior for some types of insurance, more extensive state interventions are needed for products that are sold to individual consumers.

Where additional regulation is needed, community rating rules, authorization requirements for policy modifications, and claims handling standards are the mechanisms best suited to guaranteeing that insurance markets continue to advance public interests in the Big Data era.

摘译

大数据革命已经来临。对预测性分析方法使用的增加以及第三方用以记录个人信息的技术进步,正在实践中转换所有经济部门的商业行为。在保险行业中更是如此:保险公司预测未来的能力是其营利能力的核心因素。学者和媒体夸大了大数据分析的潜在利益——它能够促使商业为适应消费者的偏好而调整其实践,同时增加运行效率。然而大数据运动潜在的消极影响仅受到了极少关注。评论人大多将与大数据分析有关的隐私和数据安全作为其主要焦点。几乎没有人去尝试评估这些发展会如何影响消费者的其他利益,或者更广泛地评估这些发展证成对市场进行额外规制的限度。

本文旨在弥补这一缺憾。它确认了保险人使用数据会影响到的八种社会利益——精算公平性、损失防止、自治、不歧视、正义、效用最大化,隐私以及诚信。同时,本文还描述了规制者如何行动以确保该市场能够使这些价值得到最优平衡。虽然自由放任的规制进路对某些类型的保险是最优的,但对某些销售给个体消费者的产品而言,也需要更大范围的国家干预。当然,额外的规制也是需要的。社群的评级规则、保单修改的授权要求,以及请求处理标准都是非常好的机制。在大数据的时代背景下,这些机制对于保障在保险市场中继续促进公共利益是最合适的。

翻译:王怡聪

吉林大学法学院 2016级民商法学硕士研究生